Stephen Krashen and Compehensible Input
Stephen Krashen thinks that comprehensible input is the most important factor, in learning a language. He says that our brains have an LAD (language acquisition device) and that the teacher’s job is to provide input to it, in a low anxiety situation, where student’s affective filters are low.
Classrooms or Real World: Neither are Perfect
Classrooms can give input in a comprehensible way but it’s often not interesting. The real world gives interesting input, but it’s often not comprehensible for language learners. So, classrooms and teachers still have a place in language learning, especially for the beginner and a big part of our job is to provide interesting and engaging input that is at, or just slightly above the level of the students. If it’s above, we can help the students to understand, which fits in nicely with Vgotsky’s ZPD theory.
Extensive Reading: Required!
Krashen says that comprehensible input can offer language learners a good start, but it’s not really appropriate for academic English, or ESP (English for Specific Purposes). Language learners have to acquire this language in the same way that a Native Speaker would (naturally) because it is actually too complicated to teach it directly. This language is naturally acquired through extensive, free reading. An example of how to do with this would be: starting with comic books, easy novels, progressing to sci-fi books, up to journal articles and then serious textbooks in an area of particular interest. There are different paths to fluency but all involve reading texts on increasing difficulty, for pleasure.
For more on extensive reading by Krashen:
A few thoughts of how this can apply to my own teaching life:
1. I need to encourage students to read extensively. Many (99%) have never read a single novel, comic book or newspaper article in English, for fun.
2. I need to provide interesting input for my students in the classroom. This involves taking stuff from the real-world and making it a bit easier by grading the language in it.
3. I need to ensure that I provide a classroom environment with low anxiety. This means cooperation instead of competition.
Academic Types: Check out this book by Stephen Krashen